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IGNOU MCA FINAL YEAR PROJECT SYNOPSYS of Project Sanatorium (Hospital Information System) 

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Title of the Project


The Sanatorium - (A Hospital Information System)



Introduction

Kavita Medical Centre, Lucknow (K. M. C.) is a prestigious hospital situated in the heart of Hazrat Ganj with a very large patient capacity. The popularity of this hospital is gaining momentum day by day because of the state-of-the art facilities provided here to the patients.

Its rich Medical Store serves to the purpose of the medicines of the patients who visit this hospital. The medical store currently is facing problems in maintaining its inventory and keeping its relations up-to-date with its suppliers. The Medical Store issues medicines to the patients and also receives the unused medicines in good condition from the patients to minimize wastage. With increasing number of patients this record keeping has become a burden and is no longer sustainable with the current manual system. It, therefore, badly needs an improved and efficient computerized system for maintaining its Inventory, Issue, and purchase activities.

The hospital treats both indoor patients and the outdoor patients. It has to maintain full information of the indoor patients as well as outdoor patients for the purpose of historical use. Doctors who serve to the hospital are the regular employees of the hospital; however, sometimes external doctors are used to handle complicated cases. So the hospital needs to maintain its Doctors’ records separately along with the records of its other employees. All these operations are getting unmanageable day by day because of the stiff rise in data.
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With an eye on the future, the Senior Management of ‘K. M. C.’ has decided to invest into a computerized Hospital Management & Information System which may keep the records of its patients, employees, medical store, doctors etc and may also be able to handle its complete Accounting. It is also desirable to maintain the activities of pathology lab which is also run as a service in the hospital.

Objective

The Sanatorium is designed to achieve the following objectives:

I. The system should be menu-driven and must have a user-friendly Graphical User Interface.

II. When a patient comes for treatment and is admitted to the hospital his card should be filled and all jobs to be done should get listed.

III. If the medical store issues medicines to patients, it should reduce the stock status of the medical store and vice-versa.

IV. It should be able to handle the test reports of patients conducted in the pathology lab of the hospital.

V. The inventory should be updated automatically whenever a transaction is made. The system should be able to ring an alarm if the stock level of certain medicines reaches the minimum level (Reorder Limit).

VI. The prescription of the Outdoor patients should be kept up to date and there record should be kept in the system for historical purposes.

VII. The accounting of the hospital should be integrated into the new system so that this job need not be outsourced.

VIII. The record and fee details of external doctors should be maintained separately with the internal doctor’s record.

IX. Since the test results, treatment results and accounting information are crucial to the hospital there must be a good security mechanism in the software.

X. While admitting a new patient room allocation and availability check for the same should be done by the system.

XI. The system must have digital image processing facilities to process ultra sound & other reports, and Employees photographs.
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Project Category

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) + Computer Graphics

The project falls under the category of Relational Database Management System. Since it also has a module for Image Processing so this project comes under the hybrid category of the RDBMS + Computer Graphics

Data Flow Diagrams




Based on the requirement analysis of the system the following are the data flow diagrams of the proposed system:

TO VIEW THE DFD CLICK HERE

Input Modules




1. Purchase

The medical store purchases medicines from suppliers and make payment for only those items which are up to mark. This module handles this operation. It keeps the record of suppliers listed with what items they supply. An order is placed with the supplier only when Reorder Limit is reached in the inventory.



Process Logic of Purchase Module

First of all a list of items falling below the reorder limit are queried from the inventory file. Thereafter, a list of suppliers is prepared for each item. Order is placed with these suppliers. When the suppliers fulfil the orders, the supplied item is checked for damaged and expired medicines. Such medicines are returned. The inventory is updated with the item information. The payment is made for only those medicines which are found in good condition. This payment information is sent to the accounting module.
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2. Indoor Patient

This module is responsible for keeping the records of indoor patients. All the payments made by the patients in advance account are tracked by this module. When a patient is admitted and a room is allotted, his card is issued which can be used by the patient in all further activities.

Process Logic of Indoor Patient Module

Whenever a patient is referred for admission into the hospital, his referral is checked against the availability of rooms in the wards. If the request is accepted the patient is admitted and advance payment is taken. The patient treatment card is generated which is used by the patient for all the treatment activities, patient undergoes.

3. Accounting

The accounting module works fine by collecting all the transaction information and generates medicine of accounting. Important reports generated by accounting module are Balance Sheet, P/L account, Cash flow statements, fund flow statements, etc.

The receipt generation is also the job of accounting section.

Process Logic of A/C Module

All income statements and all expense statements are gathered by accounting module and it processes those statements to generate the medicine of accountings, balance sheet, profit and loss account, cash and fund flow statements, Day Book, Bank Book, etc. This is a standard practice observed all over the India and is designed as per Govt. of India norms.


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4. Issue

This module handles all the activities related to the medicines issued to the indoor patients. When ever medicines are issued to the patients it decreases the inventory level. All these activities are updated automatically. The medicines issued to the patients are recorded in a data store which is used as lookup while calculating the final bill of the patient.

Process Logic of Issue Module

Medicines are issued to those patients who are admitted in the hospital. Medicines are issued on the basis of doctor’s prescription. The patient has to produce the prescription before he could get any medicine from the store. Medicines which are available in the store are issued to the patients. If the Payment DB of the Patient shows insignificant amount, he is asked to deposit more sum. Once the sum is deposited, medicines are issued to the patient. If the patient has enough balance, the cost of the medicine is deducted and the information is stored in the Medical Issue DB.

5. OPD (Outdoor Patients)

Outdoor module handles the outdoor patients incoming into the hospital for their medical examination. They are referred to the respective doctors and are charged as per their bill. The records of Outdoor Patients are maintained in the hospital so that vital reports regarding most common diseases should be presented to the medical survey bodies.

Process Logic of OPD Module

Outdoor patients are not admitted in the hospital. They arrive in the hospital, get examined by the doctor, pay the examination charges and walk out. No room allotment is done for them. They may or may not arrive as per scheduled appointment. If, however, there is an appointment fixed beforehand its records are maintained. Appointments may be cancelled by the doctors and/or by the patients. Medicines are not issued to the outdoor patients, however, if they wish to purchase medicine from the hospital medical store they must produce their prescription. In this case, no Medical Issue DB is updated. However, for all the sales made to the patient, the inventory is updated accordingly. Sold medicines are not accepted by the store. All payments made by the patient, are sent to the accounting section which generates the bill and gives the receipt.

6. Discharge

When the indoor patients are relived from the hospital, this module comes into action. All the payments made by the patients in different accounts and the cost of all the services enjoyed by the patients are read and the final bill is generated. This bill is sent to the accounting section which receives the payment and generates the receipt for the same.

Process Logic of Discharge Module

A request of discharge comes from the patient and he asks for the bill. To print the bill all the expenses and payments made by the patient are read from respective modules (Room Charges from Ward/Room module, Test fees from test module, Medicine DB from Issue module, etc). The bill is generated from the collected information and a bill is printed. This bill is sent into the accounting section where the payment is made by the patient. When the payment is received from the patient by the accounting section, it generates the receipt for the same. With the discharge of the patient, the room status is also updated.

7. Digital Image Processing Module

This module is used as an add-on to the Test Module and the Employee Module. This module is used by the user to process test results, x-ray reports, employees’ photographs, etc.

Process Logic of Digital Image Processing Module

For every image stored in computer there are bit patterns. These bit patterns identify the colour, hue, saturation, luminosity of every point. This module exploits this arrangement and produces spectacular effects by manipulating these bit patterns.

8. Ward & Room

There are many wards in the hospital located at different floors. These wards have a large number of rooms. Rooms have beds and beds are allotted to the patients. Even a complete room can be allotted to a patient. This module handles all these activities and comes into play when a new patient is required to be admitted.

Process Logic of Ward & Room Module
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When a new patient requests for admission, he is asked to specify which ward he will prefer. There are many wards viz. General Ward, Emergency Ward, etc. These wards have different kinds of rooms, example, A.C., Deluxe, Premium, General, etc. When a patient specifies his ward a search is made to see if there are vacant rooms as per the patient’s choice. If a match is found the room is allotted to the patient as soon as he makes the payment. If a match is not found the patient is asked for an alternative, if the patient is reluctant to such requests, his admission request is denied. During the course of his treatment a patient may also shift his room as per his choice.

9. Treatment

All the information regarding patient’s treatment are kept and produced by this module. Information regarding patient’s diagnosis, prescription, daily vital, test reports etc. are a part of this module.

Process Logic of Treatment Module

A doctor diagnoses the patients and refers them a few tests as required. This may not hold true every time. Besides, every time doctor treats an old patient it may check his previous treatment records as well as his daily vital. All this information is used as input by the doctor who then prescribes the patient normal treatment, an emergency treatment or an operation.

10. Employees

This module is where employees’ information is kept and maintained. This module is concerned with Employee’s addition, deletion, updating, leave application acceptance/rejection etc. Employee type, grade, designation, currently assigned duty, and all other personal information of the employee including Date of Joining the Hospital is maintained by this module. The leave and absence information of this module is fed as input to the Payroll Module.

Process Logic of Employee Module

This module receives update, delete, and add requests from the valid user and performs the same action on the Employee. It also registers employees under categories and subcategories. It also process leave applications of the employee and all the valid applications are accepted while the infeasible requests are denied. It also tracks Employees’ regularity by recording their absence. For all those a day (except holidays) for which employee is not marked absent, he is considered present. This method reduces the need to record the daily attendance and hence reduce memory requirements of the system.

Output of the Project
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Report generation is a major activity handled by this software. Depending upon the needs of the management of Krishna Medical Centre this software produces the following reports:

1. Indoor Patient Register: - This report gives the information of all the patients who are currently admitted in the Hospital.

2. OPD Patient Register: - This report gives the information of all the OPD patients of the Hospital.

3. Employee Register: - This report outputs the information of all the employees in the Hospital. This report can be classified as per need and may be used to generate Employees list according to their grade, type or designation.

4. Bed Register: - This report Show the Information of All the beds in Hospital.

5. Fee Collection: - This report generates the fees collected by the Hospital to a patient. This Report Contain Registration Fee, Testing Fee etc.

6. Purchase Report: - As the name suggests it generates the Report of all the Purchase made by medical store.

7. Profit & Loss Report: - This report generates the profit & loss made by hospital at a specific time period.

8. Issue Report: - This report generates the information of all the medicine issued by the library. This report may be useful in analysing the most popular book.

9. Return Report: - This report informs the user about which medicine are returned and which are not returned by the patient.

10. Balance Sheet Report: - This report generates the balance sheet of hospital at a specific time period.

11. Daily Vital Report: - This report generates the list of daily vital report of opd patient.



Data Structure


Tools/Environment Used




Back-End : MS SQL SERVER 2000



Front-End : MS Visual Basic 6.0



Hardware/Software Specification



The Hardware requirements for this system are tabulated as follows:

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Hardware Minimum requirements

Computer Intel® or compatible Pentium 500 MHz or higher.

Memory (RAM) 128 MB Minimum; 256 MB Recommended

Hard disk space 1 GB for the database and the client software.

Monitor VGA or higher resolution. 800x600 or higher resolution required for the SQL Server graphical tools

Pointing device Microsoft Mouse or compatible

CD-ROM drive Required for installation purposes only.



The Software requirements for this system are tabulated as follows:



The ability to support a large number of operating systems makes this software unique.

SQL Server edition or component

Operating system requirement

Enterprise Edition Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0, Microsoft Windows NT Server Enterprise Edition 4.0, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Data Center Server.

Security Mechanism



The system has been designed to stand against damage (physical and logical), errors, and unauthorized access. Password facility has been incorporated into it to access the GUI and database as well. Not only has this, the user name and the password been facilitated to be stored in a remote database in encrypted form. There are user levels defined in the database having individual security levels which can only be accessed and modified by the database administrator.

There is also a facility of changing and recovering forgotten passwords at the user’s discretion. Nonetheless, the database administrator has the authority to alter the password and user level of a user without the prior permission of the user. He is also capable of adding and removing users from the database and can restrict the rights of an existing user.

Audit control is another security measure used which protects the system from external security breaches and internal fraud or embezzlement. System integrity is another security measure taken which concentrates on the functioning of hardware, database and supportive software, physical security, and operating procedures.

Future Scope

India where the belief – “Service to humanity is service to god”- is hold strongly, hospitals are a common sight. There are at least 5-10 good hospitals in every city of India which are rushed by patients. These hospitals are better accustomed to treat patients and fight diseases, than to handle a large amount of patients’ data and a lot of papers.

A big hospital, like one dealt in this project, face a large number of problems involving data maintenance, storage and mining. The manual system of data processing and record keeping is error prone, labour intensive and thus costly. It requires a lot of paper handling which further requires proper storage facilities. Moreover, this modus operandi adversely affects the smooth functioning of the organization. The Lifeline Information system helps in a great deal, to reduce manual labour of collecting and piling up data for later references, which is very often difficult to maintain, because of overwork or misplace of collected information. This system also figures out the human engineering considerations (ergonomics) which, in turn, has resulted in a user friendly, menu-driven Graphical User Interface. This system simplifies the upholding of large amount of data and the speed of processing is off the capacity of any manual system. It minimizes the time and efforts of the user with efficiency. It is possible at any point of time to extend the software to stand at ceremony. This project is developed in such a way that any implementation or extension can be done easily.

With so many outstanding features, it is expected that the proposed system (The Sanatorium) would find its use in hospitals.

Further Enhancement

There are few enhancements which are pointed out in the proposed system. They are as follows:

1. Module for payroll generation.

2. Enhanced module for handling pathology lab.

3. A complete accounting system matching the VAT policy introduced by Govt. of India.

4. It must also interact with the world through the Internet. So there must be a web interface.

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